Egyptian Bloodlines Explained

WHAT’S IN A NAME?

Demystifying Bloodlines and Conservation Groups

By Anita K. Enander

This paper is based on a presentation made in June 2009 at the Egyptian Event, Lexington, KY. All rights reserved.

 During the past 50 years, breeders in the West have formed several organizations with the general goal of conserving the asil (noble, pure) Bedouin Arabian horse. Each organization has a different history and focuses on a different sub-group of the breed. Some focus on horses tracing to a particular importer or a specific group of “foundation” horses. Several are devoted to some aspect of the “Egyptian” Arabian horse.

Each has developed its own definitions, acronyms, and terms that are confusing to newcomers. It is often difficult to determine why a particular horse is included in or excluded from a particular group. Advertising copy increases one’s consternation, with the inclusion of abbreviations or acronyms for which no explanation is provided.

This article will explain each organization, the bloodlines with which each is concerned, which horses are included/excluded, and the terms frequently used as a shorthand within each organization. Emphasis is placed on the various groups devoted to various Egyptian bloodlines, because these comprise about 85 percent of the asil horses outside the countries of origin. Other conservation groups and source bloodlines are discussed briefly.

THE ORIGINAL CUSTODIANS

The origin of the Arabian horse in the desert remains a matter of study and controversy (see Dr. Sandra Olsen’s excellent chapter Horses in the Ancient Near East, Egypt and Arabia, in A Gift from the Desert for a comprehensive discussion of what is known and not known regarding the development and introduction of the horse into this area). Contemporary Arabian horses descend from stock bred by nomadic Bedouin tribes in Arabia Deserta, an area covering most of what is now Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Yemen, and Oman. These are called the “countries of origin.”

The Arab countries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, the Sudan, Mauritania, and Lebanon, and Palestine and most of the state of Israel, are not homelands of the asil horse. These countries acquired asil horses through purchase, war, or trade, just as did Europe, the UK, the US, and other Western countries (this subject is treated extensively in a two-part article by Edouard Al-Dahdah; see references).

Not all Bedouin tribes bred horses. Western travelers consistently reported that the Bedouin tribes with horses were fanatical in their commitment to breeding from asil horses – those that met the tribal criteria of purity and authenticity. What was asil for one tribe was not necessarily asil for another, depending partly on what was known about the horse and its breeders (an excellent explanation of “What Is Asil?” is available on-line at the blog maintained by Edouard Al-Dahdah at http://daughterofthewind.org).

BREEDING IN EGYPT

Egypt, although not an area of origin, has been a focal point for breeding Arabian horses for the past 200 years. Descendents of these horses are the concern of several conservation organizations. To understand the organizations and their designated foundation stock, it is necessary to understand something of Egyptian history, ranging back to the early-1800s.

 Conservation in Egypt – The Albanian Pashas in Egypt, 1805-1914

The Ottoman Empire influenced or ruled most of Egypt for 400 years, beginning in the mid-1500s.  Mohammed Ali (b. 1769), an Albanian, became Viceroy of Egypt in 1805. His military actions in the western part of what is now Saudia Arabia and in Syria from the early- to mid-1800s yielded precious Arabian horses. Five generations of Mohammed Ali’s descendants bred Arabian horses in Egypt.

The Abbas Pasha Manuscript and lists published in Breeding of Pure Bred Arab Horses (by Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik) support the belief that some of Mohammed Ali’s horses bred on in studs operated by his descendants, such as Abbas Pasha, Prince Ahmed Pasha Kemal, Khedive Abbas II, Prince Kemal el Dine, and Prince Mohammed Aly (see accompanying chart). Ali Pasha Sherif, who purchased horses from Abbas Pasha, was not a family member, but played a key role in the continuity of breeding programs in Egypt.

The family continued to rule Egypt into the 20th century. In 1917, Mohammed Ali’s great-grandson Fuad I became Sultan and then King (1922) of Egypt. Fuad’s son King Farouk followed, and Farouk’s infant son King Fuad II ruled until the founding of the Republic in 1953. Together, this family collected and bred horses of Bedouin origin in various studs, comprising the largest continuous breeding program of asil horses outside the hands of the Bedouin.  (See The Arabian Horse Families of Egypt, by Colin Pearson, p. ix-xii, for a brief description of the family tree.)

Western Notions of Conservation – Lady Anne and Wilfrid Blunt

Documentation on horses taken from the desert to the West, from the Middle Ages onward, show that most Arabian horses were used to improve local stock. The notion of retaining a core of “pure” Arabian horses was not a part of most breeding programs. The few European studs that maintained a separate section of horses descended entirely from desert stock saw their studs decimated by wars.

Lady Anne and Wilfrid Blunt made three trips into the desert, 1877-78, 1878-79, and 1881, acquiring stock directly from the Bedouin. They originally planned to use horses from the desert to improve their own local stock. Only later did they build a breeding program based exclusively of Bedouin stock – one of the first “conservation” programs in the West – maintaining Crabbet Stud in England and Sheykh Obeyd outside Cairo. They also acquired horses from and sold or gifted horses to various Egyptian studs.

East Meets West – the Founding of the Royal Agricultural Society, 1914

On December 25, 1913, Lady Anne wrote:

“Mutlak [stud manager at Sheykh Obeyd] came to say Mr Branch was looking at Ghazwa. He had come with a friend (name I did not catch) and Kamel Maher. I don’t know but what his real object was only to see if I would join the 3 Princes in a very much restricted registration of only pure Ali Pasha Sherif (i.e. Abbas) stock and perhaps a separate class for other authentic stock. This I will do with pleasure.”

This effort later became the Royal Agricultural Society (RAS), although the stock included was broader than just the Ali Pasha Sherif stock.

The RAS included stock from Prince Ahmed Pasha Kemal (via his son Prince Youssef Kemal), Lady Anne Blunt (including horses from Lady Anne and others of Blunt breeding acquired from her daughter Lady Wentworth), Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, and Prince Mohamed Aly Tewfik.

Inshass, Hamza, Other Private Studs, and the Egyptian Agricultural Organization

Kings Fouad (1917-1936) and Farouk (1936-52) operated a royal stud at Inshass, independent of the RAS. They used horses from the RAS, supplemented by stock acquired locally or gifted to them (principally by the Saudi royal family) in the 1930s and 1940s.

Ahmed Hamza Pasha founded a private stud in 1944 (Hamdan Stables), incorporating three mares acquired from the Tahawi tribe (a branch of the Anezeh that has migrated from western Saudi Arabia to northern Africa and ultimately relocated to Egypt in the mid-1850s).

Following the abdication of King Fuad II in 1953, the RAS became the Egyptian Agricultural Organization (EAO), also incorporating horses from Inshass. The EAO continues to breed at Al Zahraa. Other private stud farms became prominent, including those of Al Badeia (the Marei family), Shams el Asil (Mrs. W. el Barbary), the Police College, and A. and G. Sherif. All were based on horses available in situ and therefore expanded the breeding of “Egyptian Arabian” horses.

The overwhelming majority of foundation horses came into the Egyptian gene pool prior to the founding of the RAS (see timeline). Note that NO horses have been added since the three horses acquired by the Hamdan Stables in the 1950s. This has been a closed herd since 1960.

CONTEMPORARY CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS THAT FOCUS ON EGYPTIAN/BLUNT SOURCES

Three groups concentrate on bloodlines of Egyptian and Blunt origin. They are presented in order of the antiquity of the foundation horses.

Heirloom (www.heirloomarabianstud.com)

The Heirloom Research Group focuses on the oldest Egyptian together with some Blunt bloodlines.

The Heirloom taproot horses are the Al Khamsa Foundation Horses and their predecessors exported from Arabia Deserta before 1914 from which the Root Mares and Root Stallions of the RAS descend.

Heirloom Egyptian Arabian Horses 1840-2000, p. 19

The name (Heirloom) honors Lady Anne Blunt’s plan, described in a journal entry for March 9, 1915:

“By the way yesterday I sent the draft of my Will with some new suggestions … to put into shape my plan of leaving these [horses] absolutely to Judith urging she should maintain as a permanent stud them or their produce to be called The Heirloom Arabian Stud. I wish to have a try at making it a permanent institution although people always declare that to be impossible.”

The key to Heirloom horses is that the blood was used to create the RAS (see copy of table from Heirloom Egyptian Arabian Horses 1840-2000). It does not mean that the blood bred on at the RAS. In some cases, contemporary horses descend from relatives of RAS root horses that stayed behind at the Blunt’s Crabbet stud in England.

Some Heirloom breeders also are concerned with two variants. The first are horses that trace to Heirloom and have Badouia (a RAS mare). Badouia’s date of export from the desert is not confirmed; if she was exported by 1914, her descendants at the RAS would be considered Heirloom.

The second variant adds El Deree, a horse imported for King Fouad that stood at Inshass and then the RAS. This specific sub-group was maintained at the RAS/EAO for many years, producing Sid Abouhom and imports such as *Khofo++, *Morafic, *Farazdac and *Ibn Moniet El Nefous, *Imperial Madheen, *Ramses Fayek, and others (www.heirloomeldereearabians.com).

Sheykh Obeyd Foundation International (www.sheykhobeyd.org)

Sheykh Obeyd Foundation International is an organization of breeders concerned with bloodlines that include all the Heirloom horses, plus several of Blunt bloodlines that were never incorporated into the RAS and other that were added during the early years of the RAS (until 1932). It is focused on the source breeders, rather than bloodlines, timeframe of desert export, or other factors. The organization is often abbreviated “SOFI,” while the horses are referred to as “SO.”

“The root stock of Sheykh Obeyd breeding is composed of 66 Arabian ancestors who were bred by, acquired by, or introduced into the gene pool by these 7 original breeders: Abbas Pasha, Ali Pasha Sherif, Ahmed Bey Sennari, Prince Ahmed Pasha Kemal, Khedive Abbas Hilme II, the Blunts and of the RAS (under the auspices of Dr. Branch). Sheykh Obeyd Arabians descend in all lines from any combination of those 66 original ancestors. In addition to being Al Khamsa, all Sheykh Obeyd Arabians are Asil Club qualified, as well as Pyramid Society qualified (with the exception of the descendants of Kars).”

The organization takes its name from the stud created by the Blunts near Cairo (entry from Lady Anne Blunt’s journal for February 17, 1882):

  “…yesterday Wilfrid signed at the Domain Office whatever had to be signed and secured the garden of ‘Sheykh Obeyd’ so we moved our camp there….”

The Pyramid Society (www.pyramidsociety.org)

The Pyramid Society includes the broadest group of foundation horses, beginning with the RAS horses, adding the EAO and Inshass horses of the 1930s-40s, and including some horses incorporated into private Egyptian breeding programs up to the 1950s. They key words in the Pyramid Society definition are that the blood was “used to create and maintain,” a program. The organization is abbreviated “TPS” and the horses are referred to as “Straight Egyptian” or “SE.”

To qualify as a Straight Egyptian, as defined by The Pyramid Society, a horse must trace in every line of its pedigree to a horse which falls into the following categories:

A. Registered or eligible by pedigree for registration by the Arabian Horse Registry of America; and
B. Traces in every line of its pedigree to horses born in Arabia Deserta; and
C. Traces in every line of its pedigree to a horse which falls within one or more of the following categories of horses:
1. owned or bred by Abbas Pasha I or Ali Pasha Sherif
2. used to create and maintain the Royal Agricultural Society (RAS)/Egyptian Agricultural Organization (EAO) breeding programs, with the exclusion of Registan and Sharkasi and their lineal descendants
3. a horse which was a lineal ancestor of a horse described in (A) or (B) above; and
4. other than those excluded above, who was conceived and born in a private stud program in Egypt and imported directly to the United States and registered by the Arabian Horse Registry of America prior to the extension of the EAO’s supervision to private Egyptian stud programs as reflected in Volume IV of the EAO’s Stud book.

OTHER SOURCES OF ASIL HORSES…

Western conservation organizations generally refer to the “original” or “authentic” or “asil” horse, meaning horses that are believed to trace entirely to Bedouin horse-breeding tribes. Horses within the parameters defined by Heirloom, Sheykh Obeyd Foundation International, and The Pyramid Society comprise approximately 85 percent of contemporary asil horses outside the countries of origin. Most are found in North America, Germany, and Egypt.

The other 15 percent of asil horses found outside the countries of origin derive from horses that came directly from the desert to Western breeders, without having been incorporated into Egyptian breeding programs; some have been cross-bred with Egyptian lines. These horses are included in the foundation stock for conservation organizations that are concerned with the broader asil population or with specific sub-groups.

Horses that are not of Egyptian or Blunt sources but which have asil descendants outside of the countries of origin derive from:

• Hamidie Society, which brought horses to the US for the 1893 Worlds Fair. These remained in the US and are among the earliest registered as Arabians.

• Homer Davenport importation in 1906. Davenport brought 27 horses from the area now in Syria to the US. He also obtained horses from the Hamidie Society.

• Extended Saudi royal family and others from the same geographical region. The extended family that now rules Saudi Arabia has provided horses that went to other countries of origin (e.g. Bahrain), Egypt, and the UK (principally as gifts), North America, and elsewhere. Horses that came to North America range from those purchased by Albert Harris or gifted to Charles Crane in the 1930s, to horses acquired by individuals, officials, or families involved with the development of the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) in the 1950s and 60s.

•  Bahrainy royal family. The ruling Al-Khalifa family has bred horses on the island of Bahrain for more than 200 years, often exchanging horses with the Ibn Jiluwi and Ibn Saud families. Rarely, horses are gifted to Westerners. Two have come to North America, one went to South Africa; several are in the UK; all have asil descendents.

•  Horses have gone directly from the desert to other countries (the UK, Germany, Argentina, South Africa); descendants of some have then come to the US  or gone elsewhere.

…AND THE ORGANIZATIONS THAT CONSERVE THEM

Blue List and Blue Star (www.bluearabianhorsecatalog.org)

During the 1950s and 60s, Mrs. John (Kathleen) Ott and her daughter Jane began to research horses that descended entirely from Bedouin sources, using, in part, the prior research of Carl Raswan. Passionate advocates for conservation breeding within the shrinking pool of asil bloodlines then in North America, they published their findings in a blue binder in 1961. This became known as the “Blue Catalog.” Further research was provided in supplements until 1969. Their research was generally limited to horses in North America and their antecedents. The Otts gave credence to stories that Turcoman blood may have been incorporated into the Muniqi strain, and they observed that horses with Muniqi blood showed a different type than those without. Thus, horses which had no recorded sources of Muniqi were designated with an asterisk in the catalog and became known as “Blue Star.”

“If we preserve the BLUE STAR nucleus and it turns out to have been unnecessary, no harm will have been done. But if we fail to preserve it, and it turns out that it was necessary, nothing can ever make up for its loss.”  1961 Supplement Q & A’s

The “Blue” movement represented the first coordinated effort by breeders in North America to conserve exclusively Bedouin-source bloodlines. Because no supplements were published after 1969, horses that might otherwise have met the Otts’ criteria for inclusion in the Blue Catalog and would have brought new blood into the US are not considered “Blue List” if they were not in the US prior to 1969. There is a contemporary organization that continues the Otts’ efforts.

Horses that trace entirely to those shown in the Blue Catalog are designated “Blue List-eligible” and may be referred to as “BL” while Blue Star-eligible horses are referred to as “BS” and their names are shown in Blue Catalog literature in all capital letters.

Blue Star imports with extant progeny are: *Aiglon, *Al Hamdaniah, *Al Obayyah, *Amiraa, *Fadl, *Furtha Dhelall, *Hadriya, *Halwaaji, *Jalam Al Ubayan, *Jamalah El Jedrani, *Mahraa, *Muhaira, *Munifan, *Munifeh, *Nasr, *Rudann, *Sawannah, *Sindidah, *Taamri, *Turfa

Al Khamsa, Inc. (www.alkhamsa.org)

A group of breeders, most of whom were supportive of the Blue movement, formed Al Khamsa, Inc. in the early 1970s. They established a list of “Foundation Horses” based on the Blue Catalog, but also created a process for adding foundation horses that met the organization’s criteria of authenticity.

“The horses of primary interest to Al Khamsa, which are called ‘Al Khamsa Arabian Horses,’ are those horses in North America that can reasonably be assumed to descend entirely from Bedouin Arabian horses bred by horse-breeding Bedouin tribes of the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula without admixture from sources unacceptable to Al Khamsa.” (Bylaws)

The approach is to identify foundation horses, and then to maintain a roster of living Al Khamsa breeding stock, descended entirely from Foundation Horses, and their antecedents. If a line dies out, all the antecedents are removed from the Roster and the relevant Foundation Horse is removed as well. If a horse leaves North America without leaving progeny behind, it is removed from the Roster (but may be placed back on the Roster if the horse returns to North America). Al Khamsa roster horses are often abbreviated “AK.”

Horses are added to the Al Khamsa foundation list through a complex 2-year process that is initiated by a proposal from an advocate who must provide the research, including a list of contemporary stock that trace to the proposed new Foundation horse. Occasionally, horses are added to the foundation list “for completeness” even if there are no eligible, living descendants.

Horses that have been added since the founding of Al Khamsa, Inc. WITH living descendants are:

*Al Mashoor (2002) – imported from Syria to US in 1933

Besheir El Askhar (1996) – gift to Inshass in 1948

Badria (1996) – gift to Inshass in 1948

El Nasser (2003) – presented to RAS in 1947

*Layya (2002) – Hearst import from Syria to US in 1947

*Mlolshaan Hager Soloman (2002) – gift from Bahrain royal family,                                     imported to US in 1988

Soldateska (2003) – Weil/German bred, and her European antecedents

The addition of El Nasser resulted in many Straight Egyptian horses becoming eligible for the Al Khamsa designation through El Nasser’s grandson Nasralla (1956), who was widely used at the EAO.

Davenport Arabian Horse Conservancy (www.davenporthorses.org)

Homer Davenport acquired horses from the Hamidie Society after the 1893 Worlds Fair. In 1906 he traveled to the area now in Syria and obtained 27 horses that he imported to the US.  Breeders maintain a sub-group structure to retain diversity within the closed breeding group.

As defined on the Conservancy’s website:

Davenport Arabian horses are descended entirely from the historic Davenport Desert Arabian Stud. The group consists of individuals descending from horses imported by Homer Davenport in 1906 to the U.S. from Arabia, and, in some instances, in possible combination with pedigree elements from the Hamidie Society importation of 1893 to the U.S. from Arabia. 

 Asil Club (www.asilclub.org)

The Asil Club, based in Germany, was founded in 1974 to promote the breeding and conservation of the asil Arabian horse. It does not maintain a list of foundation stock, but accepts horses according to its definition (excerpt below):

The ASIL ARABIAN is a horse whose pedigree is exclusively based on Bedouin breeding of the Arabian peninsula, without any crossbreeding with non-Arabian horses at any time. The word “asil” (Arabic, pronounced: asseel) means pure, true, noble and genuine.

The ASIL ARABIAN horse should have the riding qualities and the characteristics of type which distinguish the desert Arabian….

Horses owned by members of the Asil Club may be recognized as Asil Arabians and entered into the stock list of the Asil Arabian Documentation under the following conditions:

Their parents must be registered in the stock list of the Asil Club.

 

All other horses must 
be registered in a stud book recognized by the World Arabian Horse Organisation (WAHO) or be worthy of such registration, 
trace back directly to the Arabia Deserta or correspond in every line of their pedigrees with the breeding program of the EAO or of private studs controlled by this organization (with the exception of the descendants of the horses Registan [Skowronek/Riz], Sharkasi and Ibn Galabawi.), 
display the distinct type of conformation and the riding qualities of the desertbred Arabian.

 Institute for the Desert Arabian Horse (www. desertarabian.org)

The Institute is a research, education, and conservation organization devoted to the asil horse. It does not maintain a list of foundation horses, but rather facilitates action across the broad spectrum of conservation interests internationally.

WHO’S IN – WHO’S NOT?

Even breeders with years of experience are sometimes puzzled about why some specific horses are included or excluded by specific conservation organizations. Below is a list of the horses that are most often the source of puzzlement, together with an explanation of where they fit into the conservation scheme.

Nureddin II

Heirloom: no, because not Al Khamsa (all Heirloom must be accepted by Al Khamsa, Inc.)

Sheykh Obeyd: yes, by pedigree

Pyramid Society: yes,  by pedigree

Al Khamsa: no; sublisted by the Otts in the Blue Catalog and, although proposed for addition as an Al Khamsa Foundation horse, this proposal has never passed

Asil Club: yes, by pedigree

Blue Catalog: sublisted as being of a different “type”

 Ferida

Heirloom: no, because went from the desert directly to England and left no blood in Egypt

Sheykh Obeyd: yes,  because from Lady Anne Blunt

Pyramid Society: no, for same reason as not Heirloom

Al Khamsa: yes

Asil Club: yes

Blue Catalog: yes

 Badouia

Heirloom: not at this time because birth date is uncertain (unconfirmed if before 1914), although son Kheir is a root RAS stallion; research continues
Sheykh Obeyd: yes, because incorporated in early RAS by Dr. Branch
Pyramid Society: yes, because son Kheir used at RAS to breed onward

Al Khamsa: yes, as a foundation horse

Asil Club: yes

Blue Catalog: yes

 Bint Barakat, Futna, and Fulla

Heirloom: no, because later than 1914

Sheykh Obeyd: no, not of the 7 breeders

Pyramid Society: yes

Al Khamsa: no, because never added to Roster  (2010 proposal is open)

Asil Club: yes

Blue Catalog: no, because no imports with this blood to the US during research period (by 1969)

Jerboa and Kars

Heirloom: yes, because descendants Razaz and Ras El Mal were RAS root stallions

Sheykh Obeyd: yes, because from Lady Anne Blunt

Pyramid Society: no, because the only Razaz progeny bred in Egypt are not SE and Ras El Mal had no recorded progeny so, although Razazz was use to “create” the RAS, his blood does not “maintain” the later generations

Al Khamsa: yes, as foundation horses

Asil Club: yes

Blue Catalog: yes

The Pritzlaff mare Rabanna, who descends from the Razazz daughter *Battla (born in England and exported to the US) is not Pyramid Society eligible. Therefore her descendent Rabanna and her progeny bred by Pritzlaff from his later (1958) Straight Egyptian imports are not considered Straight Egyptian. Some “Pritzlaff” horses are Straight Egyptian, if their pedigrees do not have Rabanna. Also, because the “Doyle” horses descend from Rose of Hind, they are excluded as Straight Egyptian but included as Heirloom, Sheykh Obeyd, and Al Khamsa.

Another way to understand this is by comparison with Nefisa. Nafisa’s son, Nawab, was an RAS root stallion; he left a filly in England (*Selmnab) who was exported to the US, but Nawab produced nothing in Egypt. Nefisa’s daughter, Narghileh, remained in England and produced *Nureddin II. Nefisa’s granddaughter Bint Riyala was an RAS root mare who bred on. By virtue of Bint Riyala’s production at RAS, Nefisa and any otherwise eligible relatives (e.g. *Nureddin II, *Selmnab) are considered Straight Egyptian. Al Khamsa, Inc. specifically excludes horses descended from *Nureddin II because he was excluded by the Otts; a proposal to add him to the Al Khamsa roster was defeated.

El Nasser

Heirloom: no, because later than 1914

Sheykh Obeyd: no, not of the 7 breeders

Pyramid Society: yes

Al Khamsa: yes, added as a foundation horse

Blue Catalog: no, because no imports with this blood to the US during research period (by 1969)

Bint Karima

Heirloom: no, because later than 1914

Sheykh Obeyd: no, not of the 7 breeders

Pyramid Society: yes and Asil Club

Al Khamsa: no, not in Blue Catalog and subsequent proposal to add as a foundation horse withdrawn for lack of documentation

Asil Club: yes

Blue Catalog: no, because no imports with this blood to the US during research period (by 1969)

Sharkasi

Purchased by the EAO and incorporated into EAO breeding, Sharkasi and his descendents are specifically excluded by the Pyramid Society. Descendents are used by some Egyptian breeders, leading to a difference between horses that may be accepted for Egyptian National shows and those that meet the Pyramid Society definition of “straight Egyptian.” Sharkasi was not accepted in the Blue Catalog and has never been subsequently proposed for inclusion in the Al Khamsa, Inc. roster. He is not accepted by any of the other organizations discussed.

Registan

Bred by Lady Wentworth and incorporated into RAS breeding. Registan and his otherwise-eligible descendents are specifically excluded by Pyramid Society and Al Khamsa, Inc. because research shows that his sire, Skowronek, is not asil. Descendents are used by some Egyptian breeders, leading to a difference between horses that may be accepted for Egyptian National shows and those that meet the Pyramid Society definition of “straight Egyptian.”

Summary

Heirloom: “exported from Arabia Deserta before 1914 from which
the Root Mares and Root Stallions of the RAS descend”

– must be Al Khamsa-eligible
– international in scope

Sheykh Obeyd (SO or SOFI): blood from horses of the 7 original breeders which, de facto, focuses on a particular span of time

 – extends through the tenure of Dr. Branch at RAS (1932)

– international in scope

Pyramid Society (SE):  blood from stock used to “create and maintain” RAS, EAO and private studs before EAO v. IV
– international in scope
Blue List (BL): horses catalogued by the Otts by 1969
Blue Star (BS):  Blue List without recorded Muniqi blood
– North American horses
Al Khamsa (AK): horses in North America descending entirely from            
 identified Foundation stock
– “presumed to descend entirely”
from Bedouin source
– tracks breeding stock only; no country of origin requirement
– foundation horses may be added by a specified process
Davenport :  descend from 1906 Davenport importation;
– some with Hamidie (1893) used with Davenport imports
– all are Al Khamsa, none are Egyptian (not Heirloom, SOFI, or TPS)
– most in North America, but not required

Asil Club:  of exclusively Bedouin origin

– International in scope; based in Germany

-Additions by application and examination of pedigree

– No “foundation stock” list

A final comment about DataSource

Straight Egyptian is  marked automatically when
new horse added. All horses that are eligible by pedigree are marked, including all ancestors irrespective of registering country.
Al Khamsa is added only by Al Khamsa submission of data to AHA. Horses that are not breeding stock in North America (gelded or exported without progeny) may not be marked as Al Khamsa. Ancestors registered only outside North America are NOT MARKED.

Sheykh Obeyd added periodically (currently out-of-date)

Al Khamsa:
“The horses marked in DataSource as “Al Khamsa, Inc.” are not all of the horses in the Al Khamsa, Inc. Roster. Only Roster horses that are registered with the Arabian Horse Registry (AHR) and the Canadian Arabian Horse Registry (CAHR) are marked. The Roster also includes horses that are not registered with AHR or CAHR. In addition, many AHR and CAHR horses are marked that are not in the Roster. These horses are “Al Khamsa Arabians” by pedigree, but do not meet the criteria of the Roster simply because they have no living and breeding descent in North America.
The list of horses marked “Al Khamsa, Inc.” in DataSource has been provided to the Arabian Horse Association by Al Khamsa, Inc. The list will be updated quarterly by Al Khamsa, Inc.”

Major breeders who contributed stock to Egyptian studs, showing active breeding period

 

 

*   Abbas Pasha (Viceroy Abbas Pasha I) (1813-1854)                  1840-50s

Ali Pasha Sherif (? – 1897)                                                              1850-90s

+  Prince Ahmed Pasha Kemal (1857-1907)                               1870-1900s

+  Prince Yussef Kamal (son of Ahmed Pasha Kemal)

+  Lady Anne and Wilfrid Blunt (1837/40 – 1917/22)                  1870-1910s

+  Lady Wentworth (daughter of Lady Anne Blunt)

Ahmed Bey Sennari (?)                                                                        1880s

*+ Khedive Abbas Hilmi II (1874-1944)                                           1890-1910s

+  Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik (1875-1955)                             1897-1930s

RAS Arabian Section (under Dr. Branch)                                    1914-1932

Prince Kemal el Dine Hussein (1874-1932)                                  1920-1932

*   Sultan/King Fouad (1869-1936) at Inshass                              1930-1936

*   King Farouk (1920-1965) at Inshass                                          1936-1952

Ahmed Hamza Pasha (? – 1977) Hamdan Stud                             1944-

* Governed Egypt

+ Contributed horses to the RAS Arabian Horse section 1914-1930

(See The Arabian Horse Families of Egypt, by Colin Pearson, p. ix-xii, for a more complete family tree.